Tibetan history somehow only dates back to the 7th century when Songtsan Gampo, the 33rd Tibetan king, sent his minister Sambhota to India to study Sanskrit who on his return invented the present Tibetan script based on Sanskrit. Mainly Tibet's history can be divided into four periods:
1. The Tsanpo's Period
This period starts by Nyatri Tsanpo from 127 A.DB.C to 842 A.D. at the death of Lang Dharma. In this period, Songtsan Gamoi unified Tibet, changed his capital to Lhasa, sent Sambhota to India to study Sanskrit and promulgated a script for the Tibetan on the latter's arrival to Tibet, married Princess Wencheng of the Tang Court and Princess Bhrikuti Debi of Nepal, built the Potala and the temple and the temple of Jokhang.
2. The period of Decentralization
This period began by from 842 A.D. to 1260 A.D. when Pagpa, the Abbot of Sakya monastery, became a vassal of Kublai Khan, the first Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. During this period a little is known in history except that Tibet became decentralized into a number of petty principalities.
3. The period of Sakya, Pagdu, and Karmapa's Rule
This period began from 1260 A.D to 1642 A.D during which political powers centered in the three regions of Sakya, Pagdu, and Tsang successively ruled over Tibet. This period began with Sakya's rule over Tibet, followed first by Pandu's rule in Lhaoka and then by Kamara's rule in the Tsang region(Shigatse). The Sakya period was the time when Tibet officially became an inseparable part of China.
4. The period of the Ganden Podrang's Administration.
This period started in 1642 A.D. when the 5th Dalai Lama overtook the ruling power from the Tsang ruler. It basically ended in 1951 when Tibet was liberated and came to a complete end in 1959 when a rebellion led by the Dalai Lama was pacified and the People's Government of the Tibet, Autonomous Region was set up.
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